Present perfect (I have done) (1) в английском языке
Study this example situation:
Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.
He has lost his key.
"He has lost his key" means that he lost it a short time ago and he still doesn't have it.
This is the present perfect (simple)
|I/we/they/you have (= I've, etc.)|
he/she has(= he's, etc.)
|I (etc.) haven't|
have you (etc.)
We form the present perfect with have/has
+ the past participle
. The past participle often ends in -ed
), but many important verbs are irregular (lost, written, done
For a list of irregular verbs see this
When we use the present perfect, there is a connection with the present:
- I've lost my key. ( = I don't have it now.)
- Jim has gone to Canada. ( = He is in Canada or on his way there now.)
We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:
- I've lost my key. Can you help me look for it?
- Did you hear about Jim? He's gone to Canada.
You can use the present perfcct with just
(= a short time ago):
- "Would you like something to eat?" "No, thanks. I've just had lunch."
- Hello, have you just arrived?
Use the present perfect with already to say something has happened sooner than expected:
- "Don't forget to mail the letter." "I've already mailed it."
- "When is Tom going to start his new job?" "He has already started."
Note that you can also use the simple past (I did /I lost, etc.) in the above situations.
- I lost my key. Can you help me look for it?
- "Would you like something to cat?" "No thanks. I just had lunch."
- "Don't forget to mail the letter." "I already mailed it."
Study the difference between gone to
and been to
- Beth is on vacation. She has gone to Italy. ( = She is there now or she is on her way there.)
- Tom is back from his vacation. He has been to Italy. ( = He was there, but now he has come back.)