Spelling rules в английском языке

Nouns, verbs, and adjectives can have the following endings:

noun + -s/es (plural) books ideas matches
verb + -s/es (after he/she/it) works enjoys washes
verb l -ing working enjoying washing
verb I -ed worked enjoyed washed
adjective + -er (comparative) cheaper quicker brighter
adjective + -est (superlative) cheapest quickest brightest
adjective + -ly (adverb) cheaply quickly brightly

When we use these endings, there are sometimes changes in spelling. These changes are listed below.

Vowels and consonatits

a e i o u are vowel letters.

The other letters (b c d f etc.) are consonants.

Nouns and verbs + -s/-es
The ending is -es when the word ends in -s/-ss/-sh/-ch/-x:

match/matches bus/buses box/boxes
wash/washes miss/misses search/searches

Note also:

potato/potatoes tomato/tomatoes
do/does go/goes

Words ending in -y (baby, carry, easy, etc.)
If a word ends in a consonant + y (-by/-ry/-sy, etc.):

y changes to ie before -s:


y changes to i before -ed:

hurry/hurried study/studied apply/applied try/tried

y changes to i before -er and -est:

easy/easier/easiest heavy/heavler/heaviest lucky/luckier/luckiest

y changes to i before -ly:

easy/easily heavy/heavily temporary/temporarily

y does not change before -ing:

hurrying studying applying trying

y does not change if the word ends in a vowel + y (-ay/-ey/-oy/-uy):

play/plays/played enjoy/enjoys/enjoyed monkey/monkeys


Note also:
pay/paid lay/laid say/said

Verbs ending in -ie (die, lie, tie)
If a verb ends in -ie, ie changes to y before -ing:

lie/lying die/dying tie/tying

Words ending in -e (smoke, hope, wide, etc.)


If a verb ends in -e, we leave out e before -ing:

smoke/smoking hope/hoping dance/dancing confuse/confusing

verbs ending in -ee see/seeing agree/agreeing

If a verb ends in -e, we add -d for the past (of regular verbs):

smoke/smoked hope/hoped dance/danced confuse/confused

Adjectives and adverbs

If an adjective ends in -e we add -r and -st for the comparative and superlative:

wide/wider/widest late/later/latest large/larger/largest

If an adjective ends in -e, we keep e before the adverb ending -ly:

polite/politely extreme/extremely absolute/absolutely

If an adjective ends in -le (terrible, probable, etc.), we leave out e and add -y for the adverb:

terrible/terribly probable/probably reasonable/reasonably

Doubling consonants (stop/stopping/stopped, hot/hotter/hottest, etc.)

Sometimes a verb or an adjective ends in consonant - vowel - consonant. For example:

stop plan rob hot thin wet prefer begin

We double the final consonant (-pp-, -nn- etc.) of these words before -ing, -ed, -er and -est:

stop/stopping/stopped plan/planning/planned rob/robbing/robbed
hot/hotter/hottest thin/thinner/thinniest wet/wetter/wettest

If the word has more than one syllable (prefer, begin, etc.), we double that final consonant only if the final syllable is stressed:

preFER/preferring/preferred perMIT/permitting/permitted
reGRET/regretting/regretted beGIN/beginning

If the final syllable is not stressed, we do not double the final consonant:

VISit/visiting/visited deVELop/developing/developed
LlSten/listening/listened reMEMber/remembering/remembered

If the final syllable is not stressed, and the last consonant is l, the consonant may be single or doubled:

travel/traveling/traveled or travelling/travelled
cancel/canceling/canceled or cancelling/cancelled

We do not double the final consonant if the word ends in two consonants (-rt, -rn, -ck, etc.):

start/starting/started turn/turning/turned thick/thicker/thickest

We do not double the final consonant if there are two vowel letters before it (-oil, -eed, -ain, etc.):

boil/boiling/boiled need/needing/needed explain/explaining/explained
cheap/cheaper/cheapest loud/louder/loudest quiet/quieter/quietest

Note that we do not double у or w at the end of words. (At the end of words у and w are not consonants, they are part of the vowel sound.):

stay/staying/stayed grow/growing new/newer/newest