Тест на чтение по английскому языку №1

Select the correct answer.

Questions 1-4

The incorporation of broken-down scrap tires into asphalt to produce a blend suitable for the construction of road surfaces is becoming widespread. The resulting material, asphalt-rubber, has several advantages over customary road-building materials. It can be applied in a reduced thickness, and this means that less material has to be mined and transported to the road site. Furthermore, roads constructed with this material require less maintenance than more conventional roads. Another benefit is the abatement of trafficnoise, a serious issue in urban areas. Perhaps most important, the reduction and possible eventual elimination of waste tires with all their attendant environmental problems may one day become a reality.

1. The word " scarp " is closest in meaning to


2. The word " customary " is closest in meaning to


3. In stating " Another benefit is the abatement of traffic noise," the author means that the traffic noise has

become beneficial
become a serious issue
benefited from the construction

4. The word "elimination " is closest in meaning to


Questions 5-8

Emiry Dickinson published only a handful of poems during her lifetime, and she was so secretive about her writing that even her own family was not aware of her literary activities. Emily never married, and after the age of 30 she became increasingly reclusive, rarely venturing out of her family home in Amherst, Massachusetts. She did, however, take a keen interest in contemporary culture and science and was a lively and prolific correspondent.
Her poetry was also abundant, and it was much concerned with the themes of religious conflict, nature, love, and death. Technically her poems show innovative use of rhyme and rhythm and exhibit intense emotion clearly and concisery expressed. After her death in 1886, her sister, Lavinia, discovered her entire unpublished output, over 1,700 poems in all, concealed in drawers. Four years after Emily's death, a selection of these was published. and since then her reputation has grown immensely. Her poetry is now acclaimed throughout the world.

5. The word " reclusive " is closest in meaning to


6. In stating that Emily Dickinson was a " prolific correspondent," the author means that

her letters were profound
her letters were entertaining
she held many serious discussions
she communicated a lot through letters

7. The word " intense " is closest in meaning to


8. The word " concisely " is closest in meaning to


Questions 9-12

In the last couple of decades, marine researchers have observed that epidemic diseases are attacking a variety of sea creatures. Some of them are affecting rare species that are already at risk of extinction. For example, in the 1980s a mysterious epidemic struck a species of sea urchin in the Caribbean, wiping out over 90 percent of the population. Later in the same decade, harbor seals in the Baltic and North Seas succumbed to an unidentified affliction. The green sea turtle has expired in large numbers as a result of developing tumors, known as fibropapillomas, which eventually cover the creature and prevent it from seeing or eating.
Coral reefs and the species that inhabit them have also witnessed an explosion of new diseases. Most of these reported diseases are infections that have appeared recently or are increasing in incidence or geographic range. Some scientists infer that human activity is responsible for spreading these afflictions. Perhaps industrial pollution is weakening the immune systems of marine populations and making them more susceptible to pathogens.

9. The word " affliction " is closest in meaning to


10. In stating " The green sea turtle has expired in large numbers," the author means that the sea turtles have

died from an illness
declined in numbers
quit coming to the Caribbean
become extinct in the Baltic and North Seas

11. The word " incidence " is closest in meaning to

rate of occurrence
degree of circumstance
degree of severity
rate of exposure

12. The word " susceptible " is closest in meaning to


Questions 13-16

Psychologists have found that privately made resolutions are rarely followed, whereas a public commitment to achieve some goal, such as losing weight or giving up smoking, is likely to be much more effective. This is because the approval of others for reaching one's target is valued. In contrast, disapproval for failure can lead to feelings of shame.
Advertising agencies have designed studies bearing out the truth of this observation. In their research, a group of strangers was bombarded with information about the qualities of a particular product. They were then asked to either announce out loud or write down privately whether they intended to buy the product. It was later discovered that those who publicly declared their intention to buy were considerably more likely to do so than those who affirmed their intentions in private.
In another study, an experimenter claiming to represent a local utility company interviewed homeowners, telling them he was investigating ways in which energy consumption could be reduced. Half the subjects, randomly selected, were told that if they agreed to conserve energy, their names would be mentioned in an article published in the local newspaper; the remaining half were told their names would not be used. All those interviewed agreed to cooperate and signed a form either giving consent for their names to be used or stating that their names would not be used. Later in the year, the amount of gas consumed in each house was recorded. The owners who had agreed to their names being published had used significantly less gas than those who remained anonymous.

13. The word " resolutions " is closest in meaning to


14. The word " bombarded " is closest in meaning to


15. In stating " an experimenter claiming to represent a local utility company interviewed homeowners," the author means that the experimenter who interviewed the homeowners was

committing fraud
working for a state utility company
hiding his identity from the people in the study
representing a claimant in a law case against the utility company

16. The word " consent" is closest in meaning to