Тест на чтение по английскому языку №3

Select the correct answer.

Questions 1-5

Every year about two million people visit Mount Rushmore, where the faces of four U.S. presidents were carved in granite by the sculptor Gutzon Borglum and his son. The creation of the Mount Rushmore monument took 14 years - from 1927 to 1941 - and nearly a million dollars. These were times when money was difficult to come by, and many people were jobless. To help him with this sculpture, Borglum hired laid-off workers from the closed-down mines in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. He taught these men to dynamite, drill, carve, and finish the granite as they were hanging in midair in his specially devised chairs, which had many safety features.
Borglum used dynamite to remove 90 percent of the 450,000 tons of rock from the mountain quickly and relatively inexpensively. His workmen became so skilled that without causing damage, they could blast to within four inches of the finished surface and grade the contours of the facial features. Borglum was proud of the fact that no workers were killed or seriously injured during the years of blasting and carving the granite. Considering the workers regularly used dynamite and heavy equipment, this was a remarkable feat.
During the carving, many changes in the original design had to be made to keep the carved heads free of large fissures that were uncovered. However, not all the cracks could be avoided, so Borglum concocted a mixture of granite dust, white lead, and linseed oil to fill them.
Every winter, water from melting snow gets into the fissures and expands as it freezes, making the fissures bigger. Consequently, every autumn maintenance work is done to refill the cracks. To preserve this national monument for future generations, the repairers swing out in space over a 500-foot drop and fix the monument with the same mixture that Borglum used.

1. The author of the passage indicates that the men Borglum hired were

trained sculptors
laid-off stone carvers
Black Hills volunteers
unemployed miners

2. According to the passage, what achievement did Borglum pride himself on?

The four presidential faces in granite that he had sculpted
The removal of 90 percent of the 450,000 tons of rock quickly and at a relatively low cost
His safety record of no deaths or serious injuries during the years of work with heavy equipment and dynamite
His skillful training of the labor force that enabled blasts of dynamite to be within inches of the contour lines of the faces

3. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Since cracks could not be avoided, Borglum tried various materials to cover them.
In order to fill the unavoidable cracks, Borglum invented a mixture for filling them.
A mixture was uncovered by Borglum during the changes in design needed to avoid cracks.
Because cracks could not be avoided, Borglum bought a mixture of granite dust, white lead, and linseed oil.

4. According to the passage, today Mount Rushmore needs to be

protected from air pollution
polished for tourists
restored during the winter
repaired periodically

5. The passage discusses all of the following aspects of the creation of the Mount Rushmore carvings EXCEPT

where the people who worked on Mount Rushmore came from
why Borglum carved the heads of four U.S. presidents
how Borglum dealt with fissures that could not be avoided
when repairs to this national monument are made

Questions 6-10

Teotihuacan is the largest and most impressive urban archaeological site of ancient America, covering an area of roughly 20 square kilometers. The city was at one time thought to be the religious center of the Toltecs but is now believed to be a creation of an earlier civilization about whose origins little is known. The earliest artifacts from Teotihuacan date from over 2,000 years ago, but the period of greatest expansion dates from 200 CE to 500 CE. At its peak the city is estimated to have had a population of up to 200.000 inhabitants, with residential areas extending throughout the built-up area. Judging by regionally dispersed finds of the image of the rain god Tlaloc, of "thin orange wear" pottery. and of the characteristic architectural forms, the influence of Teotihuacan was widespread. It is not clear what caused the city's decline and eventual abandonment, but the evidence points to overpopulation, a depletion of resources, and the possible sacking by adversaries.
The primary axis of the city was the Avenue of the Dead, which extends for 2.5 kilometers through the center of the urban area, starting in the north at the Moon Plaza and continuing beyond the Great Compound complexes to the south. The avenue divided Teotihuacan into two sections with apartment compounds arranged on either side, often symmetrically, suggesting a highly planned layout from the earliest phases of construction.
The vast Pyramid of the Sun, located in the middle of the central zone, is the tallest and most dominant structure of Teotihuacan, with a height of 65 meters and a base covering approximately 10 acres. At one time the edifice was surmounted by a temple. A cave located underneath the pyramid and possibly used for ritual activities hints at its religious importance. The Pyramids of the Moon and Feathered Serpent are other notable ceremonial sites nearby.
A particular feature of the architecture of many of the pyramidal platforms at this site is the series of sloping apron walls, known as taluds, interspersed with vertical panels -tableros - producing a step-like appearance. Originally all such structures would have been covered with a layer of stucco and then painted, often with pictures of animals and mythological creatures.

6. According to the passage, the dispersed finds from Teotihuacan indicate that

the city is over 2,000 years old
the city had an estimated population of as many as 200,000 inhabitants
the residential areas extended throughout the urbanized area
the city greatly influenced the surrounding areas

7. According to the passage, which of the following statements about the decline of Teotihuacan is known to be true?

The people migrated to another city.
The population of the city starved.
The city was invaded by neighbors.
The cause of the decline is uncertain.

8. According to the passage, the symmetrical layout around the Avenue of the Dead

divided the city into two sections, one of which had apartment compounds for the living
started at the Moon Plaza, continued past the Great Compound complexes, and extended as far as the center of the urban area
included a primary axis of the city
indicated that the city layout was planned before building began

9. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A feature of the pyramidal architecture is the many platforms that make up the steps.
The sloping walls of the pyramid have occasional vertical panels, which gives the appearance of steps.
The architectural features known as taluds and tableros are a particular feature of the many pyramidal platforms.
A series of sloping walls combined with vertical panels produces the appearance of steps that form the pyramidal platforms.

10. All of the following are mentioned as having been found in the Teotihuacan area EXCEPT

market streets
religious artifacts
ceremonial structures
residential districts

Questions 11-15

In the eleventh century, people noticed that if a small hole were put in one wall of a darkened room, then light coming through the aperture would make a picture of the scene outside on the opposite wall of the room. A room like this was called a camera obscura. Artists later used a box to create a camera obscura, with a lens in its opening to make the picture clearer. But it was not possible to preserve the image that was produced in the box.
In 1727, Johann Heinrich Schulze mixed chalk, silver, and nitric acid in a bottle. He found that when the mixture was subjected to light, it became darker. In 1826, Joseph Nicephore Niepce put some paper dipped in a light-sensitive chemical into his camera obscura, which he left exposed in a window. The result was probably the first permanent photographic image. The image Niepce made was a negative, a picture in which all the white parts are black and all the black parts are white. Later, Louis Daguerre found a way to reverse the black and white parts to make positive prints. But when he looked at the pictures in the light, the chemicals continued to react and the pictures went dark. In 1837, he found a way to fix the image. These images are known as daguerreotypes.
Many developments of photographic equipment were made in the nineteenth century. Glass plates coated with light-sensitive chemicals were used to produce clear, sharp. positive prints on paper. In the 1870s, George Eastman proposed using rolls of paper film, coated with chemicals, to replace glass plates. Then, in 1888, Eastman began manufacturing the Kodak® camera, the first "modern" lightweight camera that people could carry and use.
During the twentieth century, many technological improvements were made. One of the most important was color film. Color film is made from layers of chemicals that are sensitive to red, green, and blue light, from which all other colors can be made. Despite the fact that the space age has witnessed the creation of an array of technological marvels, until recently even the ability to take photographs of distant galaxies from above the Earth's atmosphere via orbiting satellites was grounded in the basic principles of photography that Niepce used when he took his first fuzzy negative pictures.

11. The first camera obscura can be described as nothing more than

a darkened room in which an image was projected onto a wall
a preserved image of a darkened room projected in a box
a box with a lens, which projected an image onto a wall in a dark room
a hole in a wall into which a lens could be inserted to project an image

12. According to the passage, what problem did Daguerre encounter?

His pictures were all negative images.
He could not find a way to make positive images.
His positive images would darken.
He could not reverse the fixed image.

13. According to the passage, George Eastman built a camera that

used chemically coated glass plates
produced light-sensitive prints
used chemicals to produce clear, sharp, and positive prints
was portable

14. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

The layers of chemicals that make up color film are sensitive to all colors that can be made.
Color film uses chemicals that are sensitive to red, green, and blue light.
Red, green, and blue light are the essential colors from which all colors can be chemically made.
The layers of chemicals on color film are sensitive to red, green, and blue light that, combined, can make all colors.

15. All of the following people are mentioned as working with photographic images EXCEPT

Johann Heinrich Schulze
Joseph Nicephore Niepce
Louis Daguerre
George Eastman

Questions 16-20

Generations of American schoolchildren have been taught the story of how the Great Fire of Chicago in October 1871 was started by Daisy, a cow belonging to one Mrs. O'Leary. The cow, stabled in a barn behind Mrs. O'Leary's house, supposedly kicked over a kerosene lamp, which set fire to hay and other combustible materials stored there. The blaze quickly spread, and fanned by a strong southwest wind and aided by intensely dry conditions, the conflagration engulfed and entirely destroyed more than three square miles of built-up area. Almost 100,000 people were left homeless, and about 300 lost their lives. Property damage was estimated at 200 million dollars, an immense sum in those days.
Soon after the fire, the O'Leary-cow story became an almost unchallenged truth and, over the years, took on the status of a modern-day myth - a staple ingredient in the fabric of American folklore. However, there are good reasons to believe that neither Mrs. O'Leary nor Daisy was culpable. First, a police reporter later claimed to have invented the whole story. Of course, this is not a conclusive refutation, but his reasoning was valid and his alternative suggestions credible. Furthermore, the testimony of one of the main witnesses. a neighbor called "Peg Leg" Sullivan, is now thought to be questionable. Some claim he invented the story to avoid censure, since he himself was not above suspicion and there were inconsistencies in his account. Other accusers have focused the blame on a variety of targets - some local boys smoking in the barn, a different neighbor, an unnamed terrorist organization, spontaneous combustion, and. most recently, an asteroid. The asteroid theory gains credence from the fact that on the same night as the Chicago fire, neighboring states suffered more than a dozen major fires. One fire destroyed the entire town of Peshtigo. Wisconsin, with the loss of more than 1,200 lives.
Whatever the real origin of the fire, the truth is that it was inevitable, given the near-drought conditions of the time and the fact that much of the city consisted of densely packed wooden shacks served by an undermanned fire department. It seems that Mrs. O'Leary and her cow were perhaps no more than convenient and vulnerable scapegoats on which a devastated populace could center its frustrations.

16. What myth has been told to generations of American schoolchildren?

That many people lost their lives and many were left homeless
That the Great Fire of Chicago was started by a cow kicking over a lamp
How much the property damage caused by the Great Fire of Chicago cost
How fast the Great Fire of Chicago spread and how much of the Chicago area was destroyed

17. What did "Peg Leg" Sullivan do?

He set the barn on fire while smoking.
He accused some local boys.
He gave a suspicious account.
He came up with some believable alternatives.

18. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

The number of fires in the surrounding states on the same night as the Chicago fire supports the asteroid theory.
There were a number of fires throughout the city of Chicago, and this supports the asteroid theory.
The numerous fires on the same night as the Chicago fire means that asteroids were to blame.
Asteroids may have caused the unusually high number of fires in Chicago on the same night.

19. All of the following are mentioned as possible reasons that the fire was so devastating EXCEPT

the lack of rain
fire-prone building materials
too few firefighters
a riotous populace

20. According to the passage, Mrs. O'Leary's cow

is a myth
is folklore
was a scapegoat
did not exist