Тест на чтение по английскому языку №4

Select the correct answer.

Questions 1-4

Jacob Epstein's sculptures were the focus of much controversy during the sculptor's lifetime. Epstein was born in the United States of Russian-Jewish immigrants in 1880. He moved to Paris in his youth and later to England, where he eventually settled and obtained British citizenship in 1907. His first major public commission, on a building in London, offended public taste because of the expressive distortion and nudity of the figures. In 1937, the Rhodesian government, which at that time owned the building, actually mutilated the sculptures to make them conform to public notions of decency. Many other of Epstein's monumental carvings received equally adverse criticism.
While the general public denounced his work, many artists and critics praised it. They admired in particular the diversity of his work and noted the influence on it of primitive and ancient sculptural motifs from Africa and the Pacific. Today, Epstein's work has received the recognition it deserves, and Epstein is considered one of the major sculptors of the twentieth century.

1. The author's attitude toward Epstein's work is


2. Which of the following was most probably an important influence on Epstein's work?

public tastes
African carvings
Russian painting
the Rhodesian government

3. Today, a newly erected Epstein sculpture would probably

be mutilated
conform to public opinions
be well received
be expressive

4. What does the author mean by the statement "Many other of Epstein's monumental carvings received equally adverse criticism"?

Many of Epstein's monuments were defaced.
People have taken equal offense to other critical works of art.
Epstein's monuments were usually denounced for their nudity.
Other sculptures of Epstein's elicited negative comments.

Questions 5-9

History books record that the first moving picture with sound was The Jazz Singer in 1927. But sound films, or "talkies," did not suddenly appear after years of silent screenings. From the earliest public performances in 1896, films were accompanied by music and sound effects. These were produced by a single pianist, a small band, or a full-scale orchestra; larger movie theaters could buy sound-effects machines.
Research into sound that was reproduced at exactly the same time as the pictures -called "synchronized sound" - began soon after the very first movies were shown. With synchronized sound, characters on the movie screen could sing and speak. As early as 1896, the newly invented gramophone, which played a large disc carrying music and dialogue, was used as a sound system. The biggest disadvantage was that the sound and pictures could become unsynchronized if, for example, the gramophone needle jumped or if the speed of the projector changed. This system was only effective for a single song or dialogue sequence.
A later development was the "sound-on-film" system. Here, sounds were recorded as a series of marks on celluloid read by optical sensors. These signals would be placed on the film alongside the images, guaranteeing synchronization. Short feature films were produced in this way as early as 1922. This system eventually brought us "talking pictures."

5. Why does the author mention "a single pianist, a small band, or a full-scale orchestra"?

To show how badly paid musicians were
To explain how sound that accompanied early films was made
To emphasize the role sound effects played in The Jazz Singer
To refute history books that claim the first movie with sound was made in 1927

6. It can be inferred that

most movie theaters had a pianist
sound-effects machines were common
orchestras couldn't synchronize sound with the pictures
gramophones were developed about the same time as moving pictures

7. Why could gramophones be considered ineffective?

They were subject to variations in speed.
They were too large for most movie theaters.
They couldn't always match the speed of the projector.
They were newly invented.

8. It can be understood that the synchronization system

could be placed alongside the images
developed at the same time as sound for movies
was an important development for talking pictures
was a guarantee that short feature films could be produced

9. It can be inferred that short feature films produced as early as 1922

preceded talking pictures
Put musicians out of work
were recorded by optical sensors
were only effective for dialogue sequences

Questions 10-13

Experiments have shown that in selecting personnel for a job, interviewing is at best a hindrance and may even cause harm. These studies have disclosed that the judgments of interviewers differ markedly and bear little or no relationship to the adequacy of job applicants. Of the many reasons why this should be the case, three in particular stand out. The first reason is related to an error of judgment known as the halo effect. If a person has one noticeable good trait, their other characteristics will be judged as better than they really are. Thus, an individual who dresses smartly and shows self-confidence is likely to be judged capable of doing a job well regardless of his or her real ability. The horns effect is essentially the same error, but focuses on one particular bad trait. Here the individual will be judged as incapable of doing a good job.
Interviewers are also prejudiced by an effect called the primacy effect. This error occurs when interpretation of later information is distorted by earlier connected information. Hence, in an interview situation, the interviewer spends most of the interview trying to confirm the impression given by the candidate in the first few moments. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that such an impression is unrelated to the aptitude of the applicant.
The phenomenon known as the contrast effect also skews the judgment of interviewers. A suitable candidate may be underestimated because he or she contrasts with a previous one who appears exceptionally intelligent. Likewise, an average candidate who is preceded by one who gives a weak showing may be judged as more suitable than he or she really is.
Since interviews as a form of personnel selection have been shown to be inadequate. other selection procedures have been devised that more accurately predict candidate suitability. Of the various tests devised, the predictor that appears to do this most successfully is cognitive ability as measured by a variety of verbal and spatial tests.

10. What does the author mean by the phrase "essentially the same error"?

The effect of the error is the same.
The error is based on the same kind of misjudgment.
The effect focuses only on negative traits.
The individual is considered less capable of the job.

11. Which of the following applicants would probably be hired for the job based on an interview in which the typical interview errors are made?

A well-dressed, confident person following someone who appears very intelligent
An unconfident, well-dressed person following someone who is well-dressed and confident
A well-dressed, confident person following someone who has apparent flaws
A confident person following a well-dressed, confident person

12. Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with concerning the actions of an interviewer looking for the best applicant for a job?

The interviewer should spend time trying to confirm a first impression.
The interviewer should be confident and well-dressed.
The interviewer should be aware that this process is a hindrance to finding the right person.
The interviewer should look for other ways to choose the best applicant.

13. The paragraphs following the passage most likely discuss which of the following?

Other reasons for misjudgments about applicants
More information on the kinds of judgmental effects
More information on tests measuring cognitive ability
Other selection procedures included in interviewing