Тест на чтение по английскому языку №5

Read each passage, then answer the question that follows.

One of the foremost American entertainers of the first part of the twentieth century was a part-Cherokee Native American named Will Rogers (1879-1935). Rogers was born in territory that would later become the state of Oklahoma and spent much of his youth riding horses and mastering the use of the lariat. These skills were refined into an entertainment act based on fancy rope tricks interspersed with humorous anecdotes and witty remarks. Traveling widely as a vaudeville entertainer, by 1915 Rogers had become a star act with the Ziegfeld Follies, a famous stage show. In 1918 his stage skills led to a new career as a movie actor both in silent films and later in the "talkies."
In the early 1920s, Rogers embarked on another profession, this time as a journalist writing weekly newspaper columns that reached millions of people worldwide. Beginning in 1930 he also broadcast regular radio addresses. What distinguished his journalistic approach was his firsthand experience of ordinary people and places and a wry sense of humor, often debunking establishment figures and institutions. This poking fun at the serious side of life, combined with an optimistic homespun philosophy, gave him immense popular appeal. He became a national and international celebrity and acquired the unofficial status of a goodwill ambassador during his travels in Europe. He also had a strong philanthropic streak and devoted money and time to charitable causes.
Rogers also had a keen interest in flying. He often wrote about the development of aviation and made friends with trailblazing flyers such as Charles Lindbergh. Another pioneering aviator, Wiley Post, invited Rogers to join him in testing the viability of a commercial route between the United States and Asia. Tragically, both Rogers and Post were killed when their plane crashed in northern Alaska. Rogers's death was felt deeply throughout the United States, and the public displays of mourning were heartfelt and widespread. The epitaph by his tomb is taken from one of his numerous quotable remarks and reminds us of the essential dignity of the man. It reads, "Never Met A Man I Didn't Like."

1. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.

Will Rogers was a much loved, charismatic figure from the first part of the twentieth century.

The state of Oklahoma had been part of the Cherokee Native American nation to which Rogers belonged.
Rogers's interests as a youth gave him the skills to succeed in the entertainment world.
The Ziegfeld Follies was a famous stage show that Rogers participated in.
A sense of humor and an optimistic philosophy were characteristics that brought Rogers worldwide distinction as a journalist and goodwill ambassador.
Rogers's death in an airplane crash brought about widespread mourning for the highly esteemed celebrity.
Written on Rogers's tombstone is "Never Met A Man I Didn't Like," one of his remarks that highlights his dignity.

The importance of background music in a film cannot be overstated. It is instrumental in creating the mood the moviemaker wants to evoke. During the infancy of cinema, the importance of music was understood, but the relationship between music and the screen action was not fully appreciated. Thus, early musical material consisted of anything available, often bearing little relation to the emotional impact of the movie. Since techniques for movies to include sound had not yet been developed, music was provided by a single musician, a small band, or a full orchestra. These musicians played what they wanted. and a pianist good at improvisation was highly regarded.
As the commercial potential of the cinema became apparent, producers realized the advantage of each film having its own music. In 1908, Camille Saint-Saens composed music specifically for a French film. However, this idea was before its time and was not embraced by the movie industry. Perhaps cinema musicians weren't ready to learn new pieces for each movie that came along, or perhaps the costs were prohibitive.
By 1913, special catalogs of music for specific dramatic purposes were available. Thus, musicians had at their disposal music that could be used for any scene from any movie. Much of this music consisted of works by famous composers and predated the advent of motion pictures. For example, Mendelssohn's wedding march was a typical catalog piece for wedding scenes and had been written before the appearance of motion pictures.
In 1922 a system that guaranteed synchronization of sound with image was developed, thus making music an essential part of filmmaking. At first, background music was used only if there was an orchestra or performer on screen because it was believed people would be bewildered about the origin of the sound.
А 1930s Western called Cimarron was the first film to experiment with background music without a visible means of production. The composer for this sound track was Max Steiner, a pioneer of film scoring. Steiner also composed the film score for Symphony of Six Million in 1932. the first film to have music underlying dialogue. The simple, somewhat naive music of early film scores quickly developed into the sophisticated musical experience that moviegoers encounter today.

2. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices chat express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.

The way music is made to create mood in movies has undergone many changes throughout the history of cinema.

Live musicians, who in earlier times had been improvising or playing what they wanted, were later given collections of pieces to play to set the mood.
Camille Saint-Saens was ahead of his time when he wrote music for a specific French film in 1908.
Synchronization of sound and image made a practical reality of the previously failed idea that each film should have its own music.
Cimarron and Symphony of Six Million, both movies from the 1930s, were breakthroughs in the music industry.
Music evolved to underlie dialogues and to be heard in the background by an invisible means of production.
In the infancy of cinema, people were naive but since then have become sophisticated moviegoers.

Water scarcity is fast becoming one of the major limiting factors in world crop production. In many areas, poor agricultural practices have led to increasing desertification and the loss of formerly arable lands. Consequently, those plant species that are well adapted to survival in dry climates are being looked at for an answer to the development of more efficient crops to grow on marginally arable lands.
Plants use several mechanisms to ensure their survival in desert environments. Some involve purely mechanical and physical adaptations, such as the shape of the plant's surface, smaller leaf size, and extensive root systems. Xerophytes and phraetophytes are two kinds of plants that survive in the desert environment through adaptations of their physical structure. Xerophytes, which include cactuses, an adaptation from the rose family, are effective desert plants because they have spines instead of leaves. These spines protect the plant from animals, shade it from the sun, and help it collect moisture. Another adaptation is their shallow but extensive root systems. The roots radiate out from the plant and quickly absorb large quantities of water when it rains.
The mesquite tree is a type of phraetophyte. These plants have tiny leaves that close their pores during the day to avoid water loss and open them at night when they can absorb moisture. All phraetophytes have developed extremely long root systems that draw water from the water table deep underground. Some phraetophytes have developed a double-root system - the typical long and deep root system to collect ground water and a shallow one like the xerophytes to collect surface water.
Some desert plant adaptations are related to chemical mechanisms. For instance, some phraetophytes depend on their unpleasant smell and taste for protection, while many xerophytes have internal gums and mucilages that give them water-retaining properties. Another chemical mechanism is that of the epiticular wax layer. This wax layer acts as an impervious cover to protect the plant. It prevents excessive loss of internal moisture. It also protects the plant from external aggression, which can come from inorganic agents such as gases, or organic agents, which include bacteria and plant pests.
Researchers have proposed that synthetic waxes with similar protective abilities could be prepared based on knowledge of desert plants. If successfully developed, such a compound could be used to greatly increase a plant's ability to maintain health in such adverse situations as inadequate water supply, limited fertilizer availability, attack by pests, and poor storage after harvesting.

3. Select the appropriate survival tactics from the answer choices and match them to the type of plant to which they relate. TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used.

Answer Choices

A. Epiticular wax coating causes difficulties for storage after harvesting.
B. Internal chemical mechanisms allow water to be held.
C. Small leaves open to collect water and close to retain it.
D. Spines were adapted from leaves.
E. The smell and taste of the plant is unpleasant for predators.
F. The long roots spread out close to the surface of the ground.
G. The roots descend deep into the ground.
H. The cactus is an adaptation of the rose to desert environments.
I. Two sets of root systems collect ground and surface water.