TOEFL письменный тест №2

WRITING SECTION

Directions: This section measures your ability to use writing to communicate in an academic environment. There will be two writing tasks. For the first writing task, you will read a passage and listen to a lecture, and then answer a question based on what you have read and heard. For the second writing task, you will answer a question based on your own knowledge and experience.
Now read the directions for the first writing task.

Writing Based on Reading and Listening


Directions: For this task, you will have three minutes to read a passage about an academic topic. You may take notes on the passage while you read. Then you will listen to a lecture about the same topic. While you listen, you may also take notes.
Then you will have 20 minutes to write a response to a question that asks you about the relationship between the lecture you heard and the reading passage. Try to answer the question as completely as possible using information from the reading passage and the lecture. The question does not ask you to express your personal opinion. You can refer to the reading passage again when it is time for you to write. You may use your notes to help you answer the question.
Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words long. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on the completeness and accuracy of the content. If you finish your response before time is up, go on to the second writing task.
On the day of the test, you will be required to type your response into a computer. Therefore, if you are taking this test in the book, practice typing your response on a computer.

INTEGRATED TASK

Directions: You have three minutes to read and take notes from the reading passage. Next, listen to the related lecture and take notes. Then write your response.

Asthma


Asthma is usually seen as a condition whose symptoms can be adequately controlled with the right medicines. Researchers point out that it is an intermittent disorder, characterized by temporary bouts of inflammation of the airways, which lead to typical symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath; after each episode (often known as an attack), symptoms subside and the airways return to normal.
Asthmatics tend to be susceptible to certain triggers in the environment. These include but are not restricted to animal fur, pollen, cigarette smoke, house dust mites, and perfumes. Attacks can also be brought on by exercise, emotional stress, or a variety of other factors including respiratory infections such as the common cold.
During an episode of asthma, the bronchial tubes and the smaller tubes dividing off from these, known as bronchioles, become narrow or blocked and as a result air can't get in or out of the lungs easily. There are two basic causes behind bronchial narrowing: either the bronchi and bronchioles are squeezed by muscles wrapped around them rather like elastic bands, or they become blocked by mucus and swelling inside the tubes themselves. When the bronchi are constricted, the condition is called bronchoconstriction. Occasional squeezing of the bronchi is normal, but in asthma sufferers these muscles may react too sensitively to environmental triggers. It is also a normal function of the bronchial tubes to produce mucus and, in concert with tiny hairs called cilia, to trap inhaled irritants and remove them from the body, thus protecting the lungs. But some asthmatics produce an overabundance of mucus, and this results in blocked airways and consequent asthmatic symptoms.

START








Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

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Directions: You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged based on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.

Question: Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how they cast doubt on the points made in the reading.

Writing Based on Knowledge and Experience


Directions: For this task, you will write an essay in response to a question that asks you to state, explain, and support your opinion on an issue. You will have 30 minutes to plan, write, and revise your essay.
Typically, an effective essay will contain a minimum of 300 words. Your essay will be judged on the quality of your writing. This includes the development of your ideas, the organization of your essay, and the quality and accuracy of the language you use to express your ideas.
On the day of the test, you will be required to type your response into a computer. Therefore practice typing your response on a computer.

INDEPENDENT WRITING TASK

Directions: Read the question low. You have 30 minutes plan, write, and revise your essay. Typically, an effective response contains a minimum of 300 words.

Question:

The widespread use of the Internet has given people access to information on a level never experienced before. How does this increase in the availability of information influence life in today's world?


Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.